First bladders, now urethras. A research team form the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine built engineered urethras (urinary tubes) for five boys using their own cells. After six years , all five boys are doing well and functioning normally. The alternative would have been an artificial graft with a 50% chance of failure or a lifetime of urinary tract infections and incontinence issues.
Dr. Anthony Atala remarked " This is an example of how the strategies of tissue engineering can be applied to multiple tissues and organs."